Web Scraping Websites Python

I’ve recently had to perform some web scraping from a site that required login.It wasn’t very straight forward as I expected so I’ve decided to write a tutorial for it.

To parse our HTML document and extract the 50 div containers, we’ll use a Python module called BeautifulSoup, the most common web scraping module for Python. In the following code cell we will: Import the BeautifulSoup class creator from the package bs4. Loading Web Pages with 'request' The requests module allows you to send HTTP. Write a Python program to test if a given page is found or not on the server. Click me to see the. Mar 15, 2021 To parse our HTML document and extract the 50 div containers, we’ll use a Python module called BeautifulSoup, the most common web scraping module for Python. In the following code cell we will: Import the BeautifulSoup class creator from the package bs4. Scrape a Dynamic Website with Python; Web Scraping with Javascript (NodeJS) Turn Any Website Into An API with AutoScraper and FastAPI; 6 Puppeteer Tricks to Avoid Detection and Make Web Scraping Easier; How to use a proxy in Playwright; Scrape a Dynamic Website with Python.

For this tutorial we will scrape a list of projects from our bitbucket account.

The code from this tutorial can be found on my Github.

We will perform the following steps:

  1. Extract the details that we need for the login
  2. Perform login to the site
  3. Scrape the required data

For this tutorial, I’ve used the following packages (can be found in the requirements.txt):

Open the login page

Go to the following page “bitbucket.org/account/signin” .You will see the following page (perform logout in case you’re already logged in)

Web Scraping Websites Python 3

Check the details that we need to extract in order to login

In this section we will build a dictionary that will hold our details for performing login:

  1. Right click on the “Username or email” field and select “inspect element”. We will use the value of the “name” attribue for this input which is “username”. “username” will be the key and our user name / email will be the value (on other sites this might be “email”, “user_name”, “login”, etc.).
  2. Right click on the “Password” field and select “inspect element”. In the script we will need to use the value of the “name” attribue for this input which is “password”. “password” will be the key in the dictionary and our password will be the value (on other sites this might be “user_password”, “login_password”, “pwd”, etc.).
  3. In the page source, search for a hidden input tag called “csrfmiddlewaretoken”. “csrfmiddlewaretoken” will be the key and value will be the hidden input value (on other sites this might be a hidden input with the name “csrf_token”, “authentication_token”, etc.). For example “Vy00PE3Ra6aISwKBrPn72SFml00IcUV8”.

We will end up with a dict that will look like this:

Web Scraping Ecommerce Websites Using Python

Keep in mind that this is the specific case for this site. While this login form is simple, other sites might require us to check the request log of the browser and find the relevant keys and values that we should use for the login step.

For this script we will only need to import the following:

First, we would like to create our session object. This object will allow us to persist the login session across all our requests.

Second, we would like to extract the csrf token from the web page, this token is used during login.For this example we are using lxml and xpath, we could have used regular expression or any other method that will extract this data.

** More about xpath and lxml can be found here.

Next, we would like to perform the login phase.In this phase, we send a POST request to the login url. We use the payload that we created in the previous step as the data.We also use a header for the request and add a referer key to it for the same url.

Now, that we were able to successfully login, we will perform the actual scraping from bitbucket dashboard page

In order to test this, let’s scrape the list of projects from the bitbucket dashboard page.Again, we will use xpath to find the target elements and print out the results. If everything went OK, the output should be the list of buckets / project that are in your bitbucket account.

You can also validate the requests results by checking the returned status code from each request.It won’t always let you know that the login phase was successful but it can be used as an indicator.

for example:

That’s it.

Full code sample can be found on Github.

Internet extends fast and modern websites pretty often use dynamic content load mechanisms to provide the best user experience. Still, on the other hand, it becomes harder to extract data from such web pages, as it requires the execution of internal Javascript in the page context while scraping. Let's review several conventional techniques that allow data extraction from dynamic websites using Python.

What is a dynamic website?#

A dynamic website is a type of website that can update or load content after the initial HTML load. So the browser receives basic HTML with JS and then loads content using received Javascript code. Such an approach allows increasing page load speed and prevents reloading the same layout each time you'd like to open a new page.

Usually, dynamic websites use AJAX to load content dynamically, or even the whole site is based on a Single-Page Application (SPA) technology.

In contrast to dynamic websites, we can observe static websites containing all the requested content on the page load.

A great example of a static website is example.com:

The whole content of this website is loaded as a plain HTML while the initial page load.

To demonstrate the basic idea of a dynamic website, we can create a web page that contains dynamically rendered text. It will not include any request to get information, just a render of a different HTML after the page load:

<head>
<script>
window.addEventListener('DOMContentLoaded',function(){
document.getElementById('test').innerHTML='I ❤️ ScrapingAnt'
</script>
<body>
</body>

All we have here is an HTML file with a single <div> in the body that contains text - Web Scraping is hard, but after the page load, that text is replaced with the text generated by the Javascript:

window.addEventListener('DOMContentLoaded',function(){
document.getElementById('test').innerHTML='I ❤️ ScrapingAnt'
</script>

To prove this, let's open this page in the browser and observe a dynamically replaced text:

Alright, so the browser displays a text, and HTML tags wrap this text.
Can't we use BeautifulSoup or LXML to parse it? Let's find out.

Extract data from a dynamic web page#

BeautifulSoup is one of the most popular Python libraries across the Internet for HTML parsing. Almost 80% of web scraping Python tutorials use this library to extract required content from the HTML.

Let's use BeautifulSoup for extracting the text inside <div> from our sample above.

import os
soup = BeautifulSoup(test_file)

This code snippet uses os library to open our test HTML file (test.html) from the local directory and creates an instance of the BeautifulSoup library stored in soup variable. Using the soup we find the tag with id test and extracts text from it.

In the screenshot from the first article part, we've seen that the content of the test page is I ❤️ ScrapingAnt, but the code snippet output is the following:

And the result is different from our expectation (except you've already found out what is going on there). Everything is correct from the BeautifulSoup perspective - it parsed the data from the provided HTML file, but we want to get the same result as the browser renders. The reason is in the dynamic Javascript that not been executed during HTML parsing.

We need the HTML to be run in a browser to see the correct values and then be able to capture those values programmatically.

Below you can find four different ways to execute dynamic website's Javascript and provide valid data for an HTML parser: Selenium, Pyppeteer, Playwright, and Web Scraping API.

Scraping

Selenuim: web scraping with a webdriver#

Selenium is one of the most popular web browser automation tools for Python. It allows communication with different web browsers by using a special connector - a webdriver.

To use Selenium with Chrome/Chromium, we'll need to download webdriver from the repository and place it into the project folder. Don't forget to install Selenium itself by executing:

Selenium instantiating and scraping flow is the following:

  • define and setup Chrome path variable
  • define and setup Chrome webdriver path variable
  • define browser launch arguments (to use headless mode, proxy, etc.)
  • instantiate a webdriver with defined above options
  • load a webpage via instantiated webdriver

In the code perspective, it looks the following:

from selenium.webdriver.chrome.options import Options
import os
opts = Options()
# opts.add_argument(' — headless') # Uncomment if the headless version needed
opts.binary_location ='<path to Chrome executable>'
# Set the location of the webdriver
chrome_driver = os.getcwd()+'<Chrome webdriver filename>'
# Instantiate a webdriver
driver = webdriver.Chrome(options=opts, executable_path=chrome_driver)
# Load the HTML page
soup = BeautifulSoup(driver.page_source)

And finally, we'll receive the required result:

Selenium usage for dynamic website scraping with Python is not complicated and allows you to choose a specific browser with its version but consists of several moving components that should be maintained. The code itself contains some boilerplate parts like the setup of the browser, webdriver, etc.

I like to use Selenium for my web scraping project, but you can find easier ways to extract data from dynamic web pages below.

Pyppeteer: Python headless Chrome#

Pyppeteer is an unofficial Python port of Puppeteer JavaScript (headless) Chrome/Chromium browser automation library. It is capable of mainly doing the same as Puppeteer can, but using Python instead of NodeJS.

Puppeteer is a high-level API to control headless Chrome, so it allows you to automate actions you're doing manually with the browser: copy page's text, download images, save page as HTML, PDF, etc.

To install Pyppeteer you can execute the following command:

The usage of Pyppeteer for our needs is much simpler than Selenium:

from bs4 import BeautifulSoup
import os
# Launch the browser
page =await browser.newPage()
# Create a URI for our test file
await page.goto(page_path)
soup = BeautifulSoup(page_content)
await browser.close()

Web Scraping Websites Python Interview

asyncio.get_event_loop().run_until_complete(main())

I've tried to comment on every atomic part of the code for a better understanding. However, generally, we've just opened a browser page, loaded a local HTML file into it, and extracted the final rendered HTML for further BeautifulSoup processing.

As we can expect, the result is the following:

We did it again and not worried about finding, downloading, and connecting webdriver to a browser. Though, Pyppeteer looks abandoned and not properly maintained. This situation may change in the nearest future, but I'd suggest looking at the more powerful library.

Playwright: Chromium, Firefox and Webkit browser automation#

Playwright can be considered as an extended Puppeteer, as it allows using more browser types (Chromium, Firefox, and Webkit) to automate modern web app testing and scraping. You can use Playwright API in JavaScript & TypeScript, Python, C# and, Java. And it's excellent, as the original Playwright maintainers support Python.

The API is almost the same as for Pyppeteer, but have sync and async version both.

Installation is simple as always:

playwright install

Let's rewrite the previous example using Playwright.

from playwright.sync_api import sync_playwright
with sync_playwright()as p:
browser = p.chromium.launch()
# Open a new browser page
page_path ='file://'+ os.getcwd()+'/test.html'
Web
# Open our test file in the opened page
page_content = page.content()

Scraping Web Pages Python

# Process extracted content with BeautifulSoup
print(soup.find(id='test').get_text())
# Close browser

As a good tradition, we can observe our beloved output:

We've gone through several different data extraction methods with Python, but is there any more straightforward way to implement this job? How can we scale our solution and scrape data with several threads?

Meet the web scraping API!

Web Scraping API#

ScrapingAnt web scraping API provides an ability to scrape dynamic websites with only a single API call. It already handles headless Chrome and rotating proxies, so the response provided will already consist of Javascript rendered content. ScrapingAnt's proxy poll prevents blocking and provides a constant and high data extraction success rate.

Usage of web scraping API is the simplest option and requires only basic programming skills.

You do not need to maintain the browser, library, proxies, webdrivers, or every other aspect of web scraper and focus on the most exciting part of the work - data analysis.

As the web scraping API runs on the cloud servers, we have to serve our file somewhere to test it. I've created a repository with a single file: https://github.com/kami4ka/dynamic-website-example/blob/main/index.html

To check it out as HTML, we can use another great tool: HTMLPreview

The final test URL to scrape a dynamic web data has a following look: http://htmlpreview.github.io/?https://github.com/kami4ka/dynamic-website-example/blob/main/index.html

The scraping code itself is the simplest one across all four described libraries. We'll use ScrapingAntClient library to access the web scraping API.

Let's install in first:

And use the installed library:

from scrapingant_client import ScrapingAntClient
# Define URL with a dynamic web content
url ='http://htmlpreview.github.io/?https://github.com/kami4ka/dynamic-website-example/blob/main/index.html'
# Create a ScrapingAntClient instance
client = ScrapingAntClient(token='<YOUR-SCRAPINGANT-API-TOKEN>')
# Get the HTML page rendered content
page_content = client.general_request(url).content
# Parse content with BeautifulSoup
print(soup.find(id='test').get_text())

To get you API token, please, visit Login page to authorize in ScrapingAnt User panel. It's free.

Web Scraping Websites Python Tutorial

And the result is still the required one.

Python Web Scraping Pdf

All the headless browser magic happens in the cloud, so you need to make an API call to get the result.

Check out the documentation for more info about ScrapingAnt API.

Web Scraping Websites Python Free

Summary#

Today we've checked four free tools that allow scraping dynamic websites with Python. All these libraries use a headless browser (or API with a headless browser) under the hood to correctly render the internal Javascript inside an HTML page. Below you can find links to find out more information about those tools and choose the handiest one:

Happy web scraping, and don't forget to use proxies to avoid blocking 🚀