In this video, the Enhancement-Type MOSFET, its Construction, Working and, drain and transfer Characteristics have been explained.By watching this video you. Enhancement MOSFET or E-MOSFET is a type of MOSFET where there is no channel constructed during its fabrication but it is induced in the substrate using the gate voltage. The E-MOSFET does not conduct when there is no gate voltage i.e. Enhancement Mode Working Principle of MOSFET. The main principle of the MOSFET device is to be able to control the voltage and current flow between the source and drain terminals. It works almost like a switch and the functionality of the device is based on the MOS capacitor. The MOS capacitor is the main part of MOSFET. An enhancement-type MOSFET is the opposite. It is normally off when the gate-source voltage is 0 (V GS =0). However, if a voltage is applied to its gate lead, the drain-source channel becomes less resistive. In this article, we will go over how both N-Channel enhancement-type and depletion-type are.
A P-Channel MOSFET is a type of MOSFET in which the channel of the MOSFET is composed of a majority of holes as current carriers. When the MOSFET is activated and is on, the majority of the current flowing are holes moving through the channels.
This is in contrast to the other type of MOSFET, which are N-Channel MOSFETs, in which the majority ofcurrent carriers are electrons.
Before, we go over the construction of P-Channel MOSFETs, we must go over the 2 types that exist. There are 2 types of P-Channel MOSFETs, enhancement-type MOSFETs and depletion-type MOSFETs.
A depletion-type MOSFET is normally on (maximum current flows from source to drain) when no differencein voltage exists between the gate and source terminals. However, if a voltage is applied to its gate lead, the drain-source channel becomes more resistive, until the gate voltage is so high, the transistor completely shuts off. An enhancement-type MOSFET is the opposite. It is normally off when the gate-source voltage is 0V(VGS=0). However, if a voltage is applied to its gate lead, the drain-source channel becomesless resistive.
In this article, we will go over how both P-Channel enhancement-type and depletion-type MOSFETs are constructed and operate.
How P-Channel MOSFETs Are Constructed Internally
An P-Channel MOSFET is made up of a P channel, which is a channel composed of a majority of hole current carriers. The gate terminals are made up of N-type material.
Depending on the voltage quantity and type (negative or positive)determines how the transistor operates and whether it turns on or off.
How a P-Channel Enhancement-type MOSFET Works
How to Turn on a P-Channel Enhancement Type MOSFET
To turn on a P-Channel Enhancement-type MOSFET, apply a positive voltage VS to the source of the MOSFET and apply a negative voltage to the gate terminal of the MOSFET (the gate must be sufficiently more negative than the threshold voltage across the drain-source region(VG
So with a sufficient positive voltage, VS, to the source and load, and sufficient negative voltage applied to the gate, the P-Channel Enhancement-type MOSFET is fully functional and is in the active 'ON' mode of operation.
How to Turn Off a P-Channel Enhancement Type MOSFET
To turn off a P-channel enhancement type MOSFET, there are 2 steps you can take. You can either cut off the bias positive voltage, VS, that powers the source. Or you can turn off the negative voltagegoing to the gate of the transistor.
How a P-Channel Depletion-type MOSFET Works
How to Turn on a P-Channel Depletion Type MOSFET
To turn on a P-Channel Depletion-Type MOSFET, for maximum operation, the gate voltage feeding the gate terminal should be 0V. With the gate voltage being 0V, the drain current is at is largest value and the transistor is in the active 'ON'region of conduction.
So, again, to turn on a P channel depletion-type MOSFET, positive voltage is applied to the source of the p-channel MOSFET. So we power the source terminal of the MOSFET with VS, a positive voltage supply. With a sufficient positive voltage, VS, and no voltage (0V) applied to the base, the P-channel Depletion-type MOSFET is in maximum operation and has the largest current.
How to Turn Off a P-Channel Depletion Type MOSFET
To turn off a P-channel MOSFET, there are 2 steps you can take. You can either cut off the bias positivevoltage, VDD, that powers the drain. Or you can apply a negative voltage to the gate. When a negativevoltage is applied to the gate, the current is reduced. As the gate voltage, VG, becomes more negative, the current lessens until cutoff, which is when then MOSFET is in the 'OFF' condition. This stops a large source-drain current.
So ,again, as negative voltage is applied to the gate terminal of the P channel depletion-type MOSFET, the MOSFET conducts less and less current across the source-drain terminal. When the gate voltage reaches a certain negative voltage threshold, it shuts the transistor off. Negative voltage shuts the transistor off. This is for a depletion-type P-channel MOSFET.
MOSFET transistors are used for both switching and amplifying applications. MOSFETs are perhaps the most popular transistors used today. Their high input impedance makes them draw very little input current, they are easy to make, can be made very small, and consume very little power.
How to Build a P-Channel MOSFET Switch Circuit
N-Channel MOSFET Basics
N Channel JFET Basics
P Channel JFET Basics
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FETs have a few disadvantages like high drain resistance, moderate input impedance and slower operation. To overcome these disadvantages, the MOSFET which is an advanced FET is invented.
MOSFET stands for Metal Oxide Silicon Field Effect Transistor or Metal Oxide Semiconductor Field Effect Transistor. This is also called as IGFET meaning Insulated Gate Field Effect Transistor. The FET is operated in both depletion and enhancement modes of operation. The following figure shows how a practical MOSFET looks like.
Construction of a MOSFET
The construction of a MOSFET is a bit similar to the FET. An oxide layer is deposited on the substrate to which the gate terminal is connected. This oxide layer acts as an insulator (sio2 insulates from the substrate), and hence the MOSFET has another name as IGFET. In the construction of MOSFET, a lightly doped substrate, is diffused with a heavily doped region. Depending upon the substrate used, they are called as P-type and N-type MOSFETs.
The following figure shows the construction of a MOSFET.
The voltage at gate controls the operation of the MOSFET. In this case, both positive and negative voltages can be applied on the gate as it is insulated from the channel. With negative gate bias voltage, it acts as depletion MOSFET while with positive gate bias voltage it acts as an Enhancement MOSFET.
Classification of MOSFETs
Depending upon the type of materials used in the construction, and the type of operation, the MOSFETs are classified as in the following figure.
After the classification, let us go through the symbols of MOSFET.
The N-channel MOSFETs are simply called as NMOS. The symbols for N-channel MOSFET are as given below.
The P-channel MOSFETs are simply called as PMOS. The symbols for P-channel MOSFET are as given below.
Now, let us go through the constructional details of an N-channel MOSFET. Usually an NChannel MOSFET is considered for explanation as this one is mostly used. Also, there is no need to mention that the study of one type explains the other too.
Construction of N- Channel MOSFET
Let us consider an N-channel MOSFET to understand its working. A lightly doped P-type substrate is taken into which two heavily doped N-type regions are diffused, which act as source and drain. Between these two N+ regions, there occurs diffusion to form an Nchannel, connecting drain and source.
A thin layer of Silicon dioxide (SiO2) is grown over the entire surface and holes are made to draw ohmic contacts for drain and source terminals. A conducting layer of aluminum is laid over the entire channel, upon this SiO2 layer from source to drain which constitutes the gate. The SiO2 substrate is connected to the common or ground terminals.
Because of its construction, the MOSFET has a very less chip area than BJT, which is 5% of the occupancy when compared to bipolar junction transistor. This device can be operated in modes. They are depletion and enhancement modes. Let us try to get into the details.
What Is Enhancement Mode In Mosfet
Working of N - Channel (depletion mode) MOSFET
For now, we have an idea that there is no PN junction present between gate and channel in this, unlike a FET. We can also observe that, the diffused channel N (between two N+ regions), the insulating dielectric SiO2 and the aluminum metal layer of the gate together form a parallel plate capacitor.
If the NMOS has to be worked in depletion mode, the gate terminal should be at negative potential while drain is at positive potential, as shown in the following figure.
When no voltage is applied between gate and source, some current flows due to the voltage between drain and source. Let some negative voltage is applied at VGG. Then the minority carriers i.e. holes, get attracted and settle near SiO2 layer. But the majority carriers, i.e., electrons get repelled.
With some amount of negative potential at VGG a certain amount of drain current ID flows through source to drain. When this negative potential is further increased, the electrons get depleted and the current ID decreases. Hence the more negative the applied VGG, the lesser the value of drain current ID will be.
The channel nearer to drain gets more depleted than at source (like in FET) and the current flow decreases due to this effect. Hence it is called as depletion mode MOSFET.
Working of N-Channel MOSFET (Enhancement Mode)
The same MOSFET can be worked in enhancement mode, if we can change the polarities of the voltage VGG. So, let us consider the MOSFET with gate source voltage VGG being positive as shown in the following figure.
When no voltage is applied between gate and source, some current flows due to the voltage between drain and source. Let some positive voltage is applied at VGG. Then the minority carriers i.e. holes, get repelled and the majority carriers i.e. electrons gets attracted towards the SiO2 layer.
With some amount of positive potential at VGG a certain amount of drain current ID flows through source to drain. When this positive potential is further increased, the current ID increases due to the flow of electrons from source and these are pushed further due to the voltage applied at VGG. Hence the more positive the applied VGG, the more the value of drain current ID will be. The current flow gets enhanced due to the increase in electron flow better than in depletion mode. Hence this mode is termed as Enhanced Mode MOSFET.
P - Channel MOSFET
The construction and working of a PMOS is same as NMOS. A lightly doped n-substrate is taken into which two heavily doped P+ regions are diffused. These two P+ regions act as source and drain. A thin layer of SiO2 is grown over the surface. Holes are cut through this layer to make contacts with P+ regions, as shown in the following figure.
Working of PMOS
N-channel Enhancement Mosfet
When the gate terminal is given a negative potential at VGG than the drain source voltage VDD, then due to the P+ regions present, the hole current is increased through the diffused P channel and the PMOS works in Enhancement Mode.
When the gate terminal is given a positive potential at VGG than the drain source voltage VDD, then due to the repulsion, the depletion occurs due to which the flow of current reduces. Thus PMOS works in Depletion Mode. Though the construction differs, the working is similar in both the type of MOSFETs. Hence with the change in voltage polarity both of the types can be used in both the modes.
This can be better understood by having an idea on the drain characteristics curve.
N-channel Enhancement Mosfet Basics
The drain characteristics of a MOSFET are drawn between the drain current ID and the drain source voltage VDS. The characteristic curve is as shown below for different values of inputs.
Actually when VDS is increased, the drain current ID should increase, but due to the applied VGS, the drain current is controlled at certain level. Hence the gate current controls the output drain current.
How Does A Mosfet Work
Transfer characteristics define the change in the value of VDS with the change in ID and VGS in both depletion and enhancement modes. The below transfer characteristic curve is drawn for drain current versus gate to source voltage.
Comparison between BJT, FET and MOSFET
Now that we have discussed all the above three, let us try to compare some of their properties.
Mosfet Enhancement Mode
|Device type||Current controlled||Voltage controlled||Voltage Controlled|
|Operational modes||No modes||Depletion mode only||Both Enhancement and Depletion modes|
|Input impedance||Low||High||Very high|
Nmos Enhancement Mode
So far, we have discussed various electronic components and their types along with their construction and working. All of these components have various uses in the electronics field. To have a practical knowledge on how these components are used in practical circuits, please refer to the ELECTRONIC CIRCUITS tutorial.