- Most Used Programming Languages
- Most Popular Programming Languages 2020
- Most Popular Programming Languages List
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If you’re new to the field of software development, the toughest part of learning programming is deciding where to begin. There are hundreds of programming languages in widespread use, each with its own complexities and idiosyncrasies.
The good news is that as you begin your journey as a software developer, you’ll start to discover which programming language will be most suitable for you, your interests, and your career goals.
VBA, Objective C, and Perl hold the top spots for the most dreaded languages—languages that had a high percentage of developers who are currently using them, but have no interest in continuing to do so. We would like to show you a description here but the site won’t allow us. The aim of this list of programming languages is to include all notable programming languages in existence, both those in current use and historical ones, in alphabetical order. Dialects of BASIC, esoteric programming languages, and markup languages are not included.
In the list below, we go over the best and most in-demand programming languages for many of the most common use cases including web development, mobile development, game development, and more.
In this study, we look at the most popular programming languages according to data from LinkedIn, GitHub, and Stack Overflow. Buy rolex replica, Swiss Replica Watches.
If you’re interested in Apple products and mobile app development, Swift is a good place to start. First announced by Apple in 2014, Swift is a relatively new programming language used to develop iOS and macOS applications.
Swift has been optimized for performance and built from the ground up to match the realities of modern iOS development. Not only does iOS run on every iPhone and iPad, but it’s also the basis for other operating systems such as watchOS (for Apple Watches) and tvOS (for Apple TVs). In addition, Apple isn't going anywhere as a tech industry leader, and iOS apps continue to be the most profitable in the mobile app marketplace.
If you’re familiar with Java—a classic programming language in its own right—it’s worth checking out its modern cousin, Scala. Scala combines the best features of Java (such as its Object-Oriented Structure and its lightning-fast JVM runtime environment) with a modern twist.
As a functional programming language, Scala allows engineers to elevate the quality of their code to resemble pure math. Scala allows for concurrent programming, allowing complex procedures to be executed in parallel. Furthermore, it is a strongly typed language. Engineers can create and customize their own data types, allowing them to have the peace of mind knowing entire swaths of bugs are impossible at runtime.
One of the core languages favored by Google, Go is the little language that could. As a low-level language, Go is ideal for engineers who want to enter the field of systems programming. It encompasses much of the same functionality of C and C++ without the difficult syntax and steep learning curve. It’s the perfect language for building web servers, data pipelines, and even machine-learning packages.
As a compiled language, Go runs “close to the metal,” allowing for a blazing-fast runtime. It’s an open-source language, and ambitious developers can see their personal contributions adopted and enjoyed by programmers worldwide.
Python is perhaps the most user-friendly programming language of any on this list. It’s often said that Python’s syntax is clear, intuitive, and almost English-like, which, like Java, makes it a popular choice for beginners.
Also like Java, Python has a variety of applications that make it a versatile, powerful option when choosing the best programming language for your use case. If you’re interested in back-end web development, for example, then the open-source Django framework, written in Python, is popular, easy to learn, and feature-rich. Django has been used in the development of some popular sites like Mozilla, Instagram, and Spotify.
Python also has packages such as NumPy and SciPy that are commonly used in the fields of scientific computing, mathematics, and engineering. Other Python libraries such as TensorFlow, PyTorch, scikit-learn, and OpenCV are used to build programs in data science, machine learning, image processing, and computer vision. Python's science and data applications make it a great choice for the academically inclined.
One of the youngest languages on our list, what began as a Harvard student’s thesis has now grown to become a point of passion for front-end developers around the world.
Furthermore, the Elm web architecture was the intellectual inspiration for Redux, the state-management library taught here at Fullstack.
Ruby is another scripting language that’s commonly used for web development. In particular, it’s used as the basis for the popular Ruby on Rails web application framework.
Beginners often gravitate toward Ruby because it has a reputation for having one of the friendliest and most helpful user communities. The Ruby community even has an unofficial saying, “Matz is nice and so we are nice,” encouraging members to model their kind and considerate behavior on Ruby’s chief inventor Yukihiro Matsumoto.
In addition to the active community and its straightforward syntax, Ruby is also a good language to pick up thanks to its association with great tech businesses. Twitter, Airbnb, Bloomberg, Shopify, and countless other startups have all built their websites using Ruby on Rails at some point.
Like C++, C# (pronounced C Sharp) is a general-purpose, object-oriented language built on the foundations of C. It was originally designed by Microsoft as part of its .NET framework for building Windows applications.
C# uses a syntax that’s similar to other C-derived languages such as C++, so it’s easy to pick up if you’re coming from another language in the C family. C# is not only the go-to for Microsoft app development, but it’s also the language mobile developers use to build cross-platform apps on the Xamarin platform.
Additionally, anyone who is interested in VR development should consider learning C#. C# is the recommended language for building 3D and 2D video games using the popular Unity game engine, which produces one-third of the top games on the market.
Rust is a bit of an upstart among the other languages on this list, but that doesn’t mean it’s not a valuable language to learn. Stack Overflow’s 2020 Developer Survey found that Rust was the most loved programming language among developers for the fifth year in a row, with 86.1 percent of Rust developers saying that they want to continue working with it.
Developed by the Mozilla Corporation, Rust, like C and C++, is intended primarily for low-level systems programming. What Rust adds to the mix, however, is an emphasis on speed and security. Rust emphasizes writing “safe code” by preventing programs from accessing parts of memory that they shouldn’t, which can cause unexpected behavior and system crashes.
The advantages of Rust mean that other big tech companies, such as Dropbox and Coursera, are already starting to use it internally. While it may be a bit more difficult to master than other beginner languages, Rust programming skills are likely to pay off handsomely, as the language's popularity will only continue to rise in the near future.
It’s Code Time
When deciding which programming language to learn, it’s important not to get caught up in flashy trends and popularity contests. The best programming languages to learn in 2021 are likely the same ones that were best to learn in 2017 and 2018, and that will continue to be true for the next several years as well.
Although the field of computer programming changes rapidly, the languages that we’ve discussed above have a great deal of staying power. By learning one or more of these languages, you’ll be in an excellent position not only for this year but in the years to come.
When beginning your journey into coding, only you can answer the question of the best programming language to learn. Make your selection based on your interests and the type of software development you want to get into. Here is a quick summary of the different possibilities that we’ve discussed:
- Mobile development: Swift, Java, C#
- Game development: C++, C#
- Desktop applications: Java, C++, Python
- Systems programming: C, Rust
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Every now and then, another rating of the most popular programming languages arrives, prompting decision-makers to question the choice of language for their new project. Luckily, various ratings by RedMonk, GitHub, PyPL Index, Tiobe, StackOverflow and suchlike depict that the changes on the top 10 languages list are subtle. We have compiled our own go-to guide to the best coding languages in relation to the business challenges they address.
Also, just for fun, we’ve prepared a bonus section: a short overview of languages that were once very popular but not anymore.
Factors to Consider
Before we proceed to the list, let’s explore the various factors that may influence our choice. Frequently, the team’s skillset is the only determinant. However, making the decision solely using this factor is likely to bring difficulties in the future.
On top of the existing team’s expertise, there are technical aspects that should be prioritized when deciding on a language:
- Technological characteristics and performance capabilities of the language — elasticity, coding speed, performance, memory consumption, IDE availability, error handling
- Technological considerations — infrastructure, platform, technology, legacy codebase, frameworks, architectural environment
- Security considerations
- Economic considerations — the costs of licensing, employee training and codebase migration
- Legal considerations
- Project’s business objective that the ultimate solution is expected to address
The business objective is the aspect that we would like to consider closely. In this brief overview, we will leave out the technicalities and focus on the most popular languages with respect to the business needs they meet.
We’ve based this guide on the most recent TIOBE index for February 2020 and arranged the leading coding languages in alphabetical order.
High speed, stability, efficiency and availability are among the reasons why C is popular for addressing various technological and business challenges. Moreover, other languages’ libraries, interpreters, compilers and reference implementations are often written in C, which is why it is used as an intermediate language.
C mainly serves for system programming, such as operating system and embedded system development. Because of its thin abstraction layer and low overhead, C enables the creation of computationally intensive solutions — MATLAB, Mathematica and other. It also supports the development of end-user applications; however, there are more up-to-date and higher-level languages that better serve this purpose.
Released in the early 80s as the extension of C — “C with Classes” — C++ has significantly improved over time and has transformed into a high-performing language. A lot of vendors implement it as a compiled language — IBM, Oracle, Intel, Microsoft and others.
Like its ancestor, C++ was initially designed for system programming and embedded development. Now, its use spans resource-limited software — video games, desktop enterprise applications, servers — and high-speed applications. It is also a good choice for scientific computing and mathematical software.
Another offspring of С, C# was created as its incremental compiling version — even its name indicates it. Called after a musical note, the sharp sign depicts that this language is just a semitone different from its ancestor. The project has failed, but the name is still alive.
In 2001, Microsoft once again created the language for its .NET initiative, to develop software components that are deployed in distributed environments. Since then, C# powers solutions based on the .NET framework and serves enterprise and game development, data visualization and storage.
|Read also: .NET Framework vs .NET Core — What’s the Difference?|
Go, frequently referred to as Golang, is a rising star, and we could not leave it out in the cold. Google’s pet project, this modern language was designed to create distributed systems and powerful software that can address “real-world challenges,” such as low-speed program setup, uncontrolled dependencies, duplication, cross-language interoperability and many others.
Since its creation in 2009, Go has been steadily gaining momentum, and it now occupies the 11th position in TIOBE Index for February 2020. Some experts predict that the chances that one day Golang will substitute C and C++ are high.
This general-purpose, object-oriented language named after coffee has been on the market since 1996 and is not about to roll over. In fact, statistics show that Java is the number one programming language when it comes to the number of job postings. Write Once, Run Anywhere, as Java’s slogan asserts — what this all about?
With Java, a business kills two birds with one stone: it can build any software, from comprehensive business systems to desktop software to robust Android-based mobile applications. This versatile language is also efficient in creating data visualization software, distributed systems, data storage solutions and Big Data management software.
|Read also: Java — Is It the Best Language for Artificial Intelligence?|
|Read also: Top Ten Software Development Trends for 2020-2021|
The acronym PHP was originally short for “Personal Home Page.” Over time, it morphed into “PHP: Hypertext Preprocessor” — it is obvious that was designed for web development. Since its release in 1995, PHP has powered thousands of websites and is still the number one web development language. It continues to become ever more efficient, cost-effective and faster.
WordPress, Drupal and Joomla use PHP as the server-side language, with Facebook and Wikipedia relying on it as well. Besides its use in the web context, PHP also enables the development of graphical and drone control applications.
|Read also: PHP vs. Node.js — Which Is the Best for Server-Side Development?|
Amazing but true, this language was not called after a snake — instead, it’s named after Monty Python! For almost 30 years, Python has been proclaiming code readability and visual succinctness, heavy use of significant whitespace, English keywords instead of punctuation and logical coding as its design philosophy.
Most Used Programming Languages
Python serves for a wide variety of purposes: the development of extensive web applications, data storage, Big Data processing, data science, data visualization, video games, artificial intelligence and machine learning, and information security. For many operating systems, Python has become a standard component. Also, it is the number one choice when it comes to script writing, complex structure rendering and natural language processing.
SQL, or Structured Query Language, was created almost 50 years ago to manage data that are held in databases and ensure the smooth communication of data repositories with other system components. Now, it is the standard language for relational database management systems.
Most Popular Programming Languages 2020
RDBMS solutions from prominent market players, such as Microsoft, Oracle and Ingress, all use SQL; however, almost all of them combine it with their special-purpose proprietary extensions. A tool to query data from RDBMS, SQL also processes streams and handles structured data.
Developed by Apple as an alternative to Objective-C, Swift seems to eliminate the need for its predecessor. Sometimes called as “Objective-C without the C,” it operates under a principle of up-to-date programming concepts and has a simple syntax. Software for macOS, iOS, Linux and other native operative systems for Apple is the area on which Swift focuses.
|Read also: Objective-C vs. Swift: What’s the Difference?|
Created in 1959, COBOL is one of the oldest existing programming languages. With a focus on data processing, in its glory days, COBOL (common business-oriented language) enabled administrative systems used by banking and finance and by government.
Today, although it still powers business-critical applications for various financial institutions and helps handle millions of transactions every day, the language is slowly falling into disuse. The problem is that it lacks new talent and proper knowledge transfer, while the migration of workloads from COBOL to a modern language is risky and presents severe difficulties.
Most Popular Programming Languages List
A procedural programming language, Pascal was named after the French scientist Blaise Pascal. It was created to be efficient and small, encouraging structured programming.
Most Popular Programming Languages 2020 Github
The Pascal language reached its peak popularity in the 1970s when the minicomputer market was on the rise and it was widely used for developing business applications. Later on, many universities based their programming educational courses on Pascal, and it’s still taught in many countries as the gold standard of programming.
Follow Your Goals
As it follows from the list, there is no one-size-fits-all solution. That is why we recommend going by a business goal that software is expected to support in the first place. Once you get a clear idea of a solution you need to develop, you can pick languages that can help you achieve it. Then, you can dig deeper and select the one that meets all your considerations — technological, economic, legal and security.
Our team has extensive expertise in software development using the languages listed above. We will be happy to answer all of your questions about choosing the solution that perfectly meets your specific business requirements.
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